The undulating black cotton soil strips, cut by numerous nalas, characterise the region of the Dharwar schists, which is now practically denuded of trees and presents a monotonous landscape, while the gneissic region is generally more or less broken and covered with a thin mantle of red loamy soil. Gneissic hills, Sedimentary formations, which cover a small belt of the region adjoining the confluence of the Krishna and the Tungabhadra rivers, occupy more or less flat plateaus.
Regionally viewed, the hills in the area present some structural features which are of interest in relation to the geology of the area: 1) Taking the most south westerly group, the hills of Karigudda, Manvi and Rabhinakal show a continuity along roughly north-west south-east directions: 2) from Sirwar and Yermasagar, running in a roughly south-east direction, may be recognised the hill of Madhugiri, Neermanvi, Gorkal, Kurvi and the one two miles west of Kamalahatti; 3) between Masarakal and Gabbur, a number of gneissic hills are seen at Kakargal. Jinnapur, Hungundabad. Ramdurga, Jagatkal, Khardigud, Maladkal and Gabbur . The hills around Uttanur are seen to be in line with the south-western group of hillocks in the above areaas also the hill-clusters around Kalmala and Kallur, are seen to be situated in the same north-west and South-east disposition as that of the group of gneissic hills enumerated above; and 4) the hills around Raichur, which constitute a prominent landmark in the area, may also be seen roughly to display north-west and south-east trends.
Raichur district lies between 15 deg. 09 min. and 16 deg. 34 min. N latitude and 75 deg. 46 min. and 77 deg. 35 min E longitude and in between two major rivers, namely, the Krishna and the Tungabhadra. The general slope of the district is from the north-west towards the south-east, its average height above the Mean Sea-Level being just 1,311 feet>
The district is bounded on the north by the district of Gulbarga, on the west by the districts of Bijapur and Dharwar, on the east by the district of Mahboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh, and on the south by the districts of Kurnool, also of Andhra Pradesh and Bellary. The two rivers, the Krishna and the Tungabhadra, form the entire northern and southern boundaries of the district.
The region around Lingsugur, gets the least amount of rainfall in the district while towards the south as well as the east, rainfall increases. During the south-west monsoon months, viz., June to September, the district received about 71% of the annual rainfall, September being the month with the highest rainfall. In the post-monsoon months of October and November also, the district receives some rain. The variations in the annual rainfall from year to year are large as is the case in the neighbouring districts.
The district on the whole has a dry climate, the period from November to May being the driest part of the year. Even during the south-west monsoon period, the humidities are not very high.
Skies are moderately to heavily clouded in the south-west monsoon months. In the post-monsoon months, clouding is somewhat less. Clear or lightly clouded skies are common in the rest of the year.