Details of the Equipment, treatment and disposal
- Incinerator capacity 50 kgs / hr for treatment of waste under category 1&2
- Autoclaves of capacity 100 kg/ hr each for treatment of waste under category 3,4,6 and 7
- Metal sharps Manager for treatment of metal sharps which is part of category 4
- Land filling for incinerator ash, hazardous chemicals and radioactive waste (categories 5, 9 and 10)
I. Incineration for treating infectious wastes
Controlled burning of wastes at high temperatures is called incineration and in RIMACT this is carried out in a double-chambered incinerator of 50kg/hour capacity with fully equipped pollution control devices in accordance with the latest guidelines issued by the CPCB. Waste is burnt in the primary chamber at 800-850 0 C and volatile gases emitted are again burnt in secondary chamber at 1050-1100 0 C (residence time of 2 seconds ) Maintenance of high temperatures as specified with immediate quenching with water is ensured through a PLC operated procedure to prevent formation of toxic gases such as dioxins and furans. The cycle time is of about 1 hour. The volume is significantly reduced with assured sterilization and destruction of microorganisms being envisaged.
II. Treatment in the Autoclave:
Steam is applied inside a double - walled jacket under pressure to attain the required temperature of 1210C or 1350C and maintain the same for the specified time for assuring 4 to 6 log sterilization. Waste to be sterilized, collected in different categories and colour coded containers, is fed into the chamber where it gets mixed, dehydrated, sterilized and mutilated.The waste is internally agitated and fragmented to attain a high level of sterilization. Steam sterilization combined with dehydration, results in dry waste substantially reduced in weight and volume. This method is used to treat pathological waste including microbiological waste, infectious plastics and infectious glass in separate batches.
III. Shredder of the Autoclave Unit:
Disinfected waste is manually fed into the shredder, which mechanically mutilates the sterilized items of different categories into small unrecognizable pieces while being washed with hot water from the solar water heater to ensure shredding, Cleaning to prevent re-infection and preventing particulate matter pollution. The sterilized, cleaned and shredded waste is then stored before being sold for recycling.
IV. Treatment of Metal Sharps in Metal sharps Manager
In individual HCEs, puncture proof, mild steel, metal sharps containers with a keyhole; help separate the needles from syringes which drop automatically into the container. A protected opening in the same for dropping the blades, canula needles, disposable lancets and sutures directly into the container help in collecting the other metal sharps from the HCEs. The containers fit snugly on top of a hopper in the metal sharps manager machine which is kept in the facility, wherein the metal sharps in the containers drop into the hopper and are mutilated and sterilized with dry heat in hot air oven at 164 0 C for one and half hours which it is stored in puncture proof boxes before selling to recycles.
Discarded Medicines, Cytotoxic Drugs and Incineration Ash dispose empty pits at landfill site.
Category 5 comprises of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines and cytotoxics and they have to be disposed carefully in secured landfills. Category 8 consists of liquid wastes, category 9 of incineration ash and category 10 of other chemical wastes, Category 9 and 10 have to be disposed safely in secured landfills and category 8 from the facility is treated in the ETP. The above-mentioned waste are segregated at source, stored and transported in black coloured plastic liners and disposed in the secured landfill constructed inside the facility for the said purpose as per the BMWM Rule, 1998.
Deep Burial at the RIMACT side
Deep Burial is the stand by option in case of failure of incinerator for Category 1 and 2 infectious wastes. A deep burial pit as per BMWM Rules is constructed at the site for the above purpose and is used as stand by during breakdown or long duration maintenance of the incinerator.
Compositing at the site
Category 3 and 6 waste consisting of soiled waste like bandages cotton, swabs, plaster casts, microbiological waste etc., after autoclaving and shredding are put into the compost pits specially constructed for this purpose. The compost is utilized for the plantation at the site and for the afforestation wok inside the facility.
ETP at the site
The liquid effluent from the condensation of quenching water in the incinerator, autoclaves, washing of sterilized waste in the shredders, room washings, washing of the transport vehicles is treated in the liquid Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) using the principle of oxidation ponds. The settled sludge from these tanks is periodically removed, composted and used for plantation in the facility. The treated water is also used for plantation at the facility.
Education & Training on Biomedical Waste Management
Education & training is an integral component of RIMACT -Facility and hence appropriate educational materials in English and Kannada have been developed and distributed to all HCEs and training done accordingly. Training of HCE personnel is being done at different levels. This includes doctors, nurses, administrators, paramedical personnel, housekeeping, laundry, and staff: ayahs, ward boys, security staff, sorters, reprocessors and staff in different departments and areas in the hospitals which are involved in BMWM
Scope of the RIMACT - Facility
The RIMACT - Facility Raichur project caters to the all HCEs of Raichur city. The facility will expand its services to the HCEs of Taluka of the Raichur district and the nearby Yadgir District with the provision of grant from the GoK for purchase of vehicles for transportation of biomedical waste from these distant places
The biomedical waste from the Taluka of Raichur district and from the nearby districts would be transported to the facility and treated at a reasonable cost. The cost of the treatment and disposal to be borne by the users (i.e.HCEs) is to be mutually fixed. The service charges are exclusive of the cost of liners and other containers which are borne by the respective HCEs according to their requirements.
Since the Guidelines of CPCB suggest that there should be one facility for every 10,000 beds, it would be best if the RIMACT - facility at Raichur is provided adequate electricity, water and transportation vehicles to cater to 10,000 beds in the northern districts of Karnataka which will prove economical to both the government and the facility.
Sources: Indian Medical Association Raichur BMWM Desk
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